This book may be the first Chickasaw-English thesaurus ever published. All the errors and omissions are mine. Philip M. B bashunchik sumac; synonyms n shumac, sumach. Chukfi tek ewe; synonyms n ram, tup, yowe. E ebaiye tek niece; synonyms n nephew, aunt, uncle. F fala ishto raven; synonyms adj black, jet, charcoal, ebony, ink, n crow, plunder, v prey, devour, feed, gulp, guttle, gorge, pig.
H hachachaba crocodile; synonyms n alligator, alacran, mosquito, octopus. Hushi Atuchina march; synonyms n walk, hike, parade, demonstration, ramble, trek, course, protest, gait, advancement, going, mar, marching, procession, progress, v journey, tramp, advance, border, pace, process, stride, stroll, demo, demonstrate, bound, strut, trudge, move, stalk.
I i chakafa gizzard; synonyms n stomach, craw, crop, maw, paunch, venter, ventricle, ventriculus.
K kanunuk lizard; synonyms n loafer, purse. L lhofi skin; synonyms n peel, hide, coating, fur, hull, rind, shell, crust, integument, pelt, case, coat, covering, cutis, fell, film, fleece, tegument, exterior, outside, envelope, v pare, bark, scrape, excoriate, flay, abrade, strip, chafe, remove. M Me may; synonyms v can, could, get, might, acquire, aim, amaze, arrest, arrive, baffle, beat, become, beget, begin, bewilder, bring, capture, catch, cause, come, commence, contract, convey, develop, dismiss, draw, drive, dumbfound, engender, experience.
N na pakali 1. O ofi cur; synonyms n mongrel, hound, coward, mutt, sneak, cad, bastard, tike, whelp, bum, good-fornothing, ne'er-do-well, rat, riffraff, rotter, scum, snake, snot, stinker, stray, toad, worm, adj mixed, underbred; ofi pulhki greyhound; ofi mohma terrier; ofi foshi hoyo setter. P pakali blossom; synonyms n flower, bloom, blooming, bud, efflorescence, flush, heyday, prime, peak, v blow, flourish, prosper, thrive, progress, develop, grow, unfold; antonym v wither; na pakali tohya honeysuckle; na pakali daisy; hushi im pakali sunflower.
T takolo nehi pit; synonyms n cavity, dent, hole, depression, grave, colliery, excavation, mine, stone, dig, crater, fossa, indentation, kernel, pitfall, quarry, shaft, cell, perforation, dimple, trench, abyss, aperture, v den, ditch, oppose, cave, mark, match, adj hollow.
U ulba herb; synonyms n plant, seasoning, flavoring, flower, herbar, yerba, v bunch; ulba halopa thistle. W wak hukshup cowhide; synonyms n cowskin, knout, bullwhip, lash, strap, thong, whip, v lambaste. Y yohbi spring; synonyms n jump, leap, bound, fountain, skip, source, dance, rise, jet, cause, font, fount, ramp, well, run, v hop, caper, bounce, dive, originate, recoil, proceed, arise, issue, prance, rebound, vault, pounce, stem, adj elastic. B bark see wochi. C calf see wak-oshi; buffalo calf yunush oshi. D daffodil see napakali. E eagle see osi.
F falcon see oskanankubi. G garfish see nunni kullo. H halibut see nunni. I iguana see toksalapa ishto. J jaybird see tishkila. K march see Hushi Atuchina. L lamb see chukfoshi. M maggot see koisht upa. N narcissus see na pakali. P pansy see na pakali. Q quail see 1. How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. The awkward case of 'his or her'. Which of these things doesn't belong?
Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Swiss noun. Swiss adjective. First Known Use of Swiss Noun , in the meaning defined at sense 1a Adjective , in the meaning defined above. Learn More about Swiss. Resources for Swiss Time Traveler! Explore the year a word first appeared. Phrases Related to Swiss Swiss roll the Swiss. Statistics for Swiss Look-up Popularity. The way she tried to accomplish this, mind you, ruffled some feathers.
It was unimportant to her if what one said was lexically imperfect—that was just a matter of pedantry.
Style and the veneer of sophistication were all. The organization of Piozzi's book is peculiar compared with that of modern synonymies. She grouped what she regarded as synonymous words together and then explained in a longish paragraph the nuances that distinguished them. Take, for example as quoted in Emblen's book ,. In Piozzi's view, a slight but important difference of class association existed in the employment of these four words.
The manner in which each was used—except among those whose "talents or fortune" rather than rank distinguished them—depended on who was being affable or courteous to whom: a duke might be affable to a commoner; it behooved a commoner to be courteous in return, and most decidedly not affable.
It was a cumbersome book, widely criticized for being prolix in style and maddeningly circular in argument. But it, too, answered a seemingly urgent need: sixteen editions were printed over the thirty-six years before Roget swept the board. Crabb's success spawned other synonymies: in the decade before Roget fourteen synonym finders were published, known today to the small fraternity of thesaurus collectors by the names of their compilers—among them William Carpenter , George Graham , James Jermyn , and James Rawson Many such books could have helped users to jog their memories.
It is rather charming to suppose that such a book, slipped furtively from a partygoer's pocket, might act as a sort of hip flask for the conversationally parched. The image may strike us as more than a little awkward, but perhaps the etiquette of the time made the use of such a little book no trickier than the use of a phrase book when abroad.
But although all these volumes listed hundreds upon hundreds of almost interchangeable words and phrases, and gave helpful hints as to how each might be suitably employed, none of them—with the possible exception of Piozzi's—took care to examine the subtle notion of the synonym itself.
None of the editors wondered—at least not in print—why a language as complex and finely tuned as English would include any two words that meant exactly the same thing. Was there such a thing as a real synonym? Or had every word been created for a unique purpose? Roget, who began as early as to consider the need for some formal classification of the chaotic entity that was then the English language, was fascinated by these questions.
The answers he constructed led him, fifty years later, to the creation of this organizational masterpiece that bears his name. Consider some of the words that are listed in the OED under synonym as examples of as-near-as-it-comes synonymy. The first are serpent and snake. Are these words true synonyms? In terms of pure definition, yes—sort of. Serpent is defined in the OED as "any of the scaly limbless reptiles regarded as having the properties of hissing and 'stinging'; Zool.
Were this all, one might agree that the two words are perfect synonyms.
List of lexicographers - Wikipedia
But the OED, complete as always, continues its definition of serpent, observing that nowadays, in ordinary use, the word is "applied chiefly to the larger and more venomous species; otherwise only rhetorical Therein is the suggestion of reptilian synonymy blown suddenly asunder. For serpent is indeed the word we choose when we want to denote a snake that is bigger and nastier than most, and snake is the word we choose to describe any smooth and elongated creature that skitters from beneath the lawnmower blades.
We say, on the one hand, "There is a snake in the basement" and, on the other, that missionaries were once thrown into "pits filled with serpents. Were they venomous? This leads to another supposed synonymy: venom and poison.
The words, however, are not exactly synonymous, because one can speak with venom yet perhaps not quite with poison. Venom is both a substance and a tone; poison is more a matter of chemistry. Examination of any words thought to be synonymous reveals a congruency of range but not an identical meaning. Take some other illustrative related examples from the OED : ship, vessel ; compassion, fellow-feeling, sympathy ; enormous, excessive, immense ; glad, happy, joyful, joyous ; kill, slay, slaughter ; grieve, mourn, lament, sorrow.
Some are very close indeed; there is little to distinguish a ship from a vessel, except that one doesn't say fishing ship or war vessel —suggesting that a vessel is likely to be engaged in peaceful activities, whereas a ship can have a more menacing role. One cannot quite imagine Nelson's having spoken of vessels on the horizon off Cape Trafalgar, or any dockside idler's speaking of the handsome lines of the ship that has just brought lobsters back from the Outer Banks.
In truth, he would probably say boat. Others on the list are more obviously distinguishable. Sometimes the distinction is a matter of degree: one kills a man; one slays his child; one slaughters the villagers who sheltered the family. On other occasions the context suggests one choice rather than another: one feels compassion for the villagers in such circumstances, but fellow-feeling for the brother of the first who had to die.
The practices surrounding synonymy, which seem to have come into being at around the time Roget was beginning to codify the language after Samuel Johnson had created his dictionary but before the members of the Philological Society of London had commenced work on the all-encompassing OED , are really quite simple. Currently, the high priest of this field is Ladislav Zgusta, a scholar of Czech extraction reinforcing the notion that English is often more scrupulously regarded by those who come from less than pure English stock; James Murray, of the OED, was proudly a Scot, and Roget came from a Swiss Huguenot family.
To be absolute synonyms, Zgusta says, words must be the same in three distinct ways: They must have the same designatum —that is, the same essential qualities. They must have the same connotation —the same associated features of meaning. And they must occupy the same range of usage and application—the contexts in which they are generally used must be identical.